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Toyota Mark II

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The Toyota Mark II is a model name used by Toyota for several decades.

The first series, called the Toyota Corona Mark II was an all new vehicle at its introduction in 1968, that sought to offer a car that was just under Japanese government regulations concerning maximum vehicle dimensions and engine displacement. Using the established platform of the Toyota Corona sedan but slightly larger and wider, it was offered as a competitor to the newly introduced Nissan Laurelin Japan, and the Nissan Bluebird / Datsun 510 internationally that appeared August 1967, and two years after the Mazda Luce in 1966. Toyota was known at the time as a small, economy car manufacturer and the Mark II allowed Toyota to establish itself as a more mainstream, international automaker. The Mark II introduced the world to a comfortable front engine, rear drive vehicle that was larger than older Toyotas while maintaining an affordable price and better fuel economy than vehicles with larger straight 6 and V8 engines.

The Mark II began to become popular with drivers around the world, Toyota introduced variations of the Mark II with two different model names, both sedans but with different styling and marketing approaches. The sportier Toyota Chaser appeared in 1977, and later in 1980, the high luxury content Toyota Cresta appeared. As other Japanese and international automakers continued to offer vehicles in this size class, the Mark II's popularity peaked in the 1980s. The Mark II was available with engines ranging from a 1.8-liter straight-4 cylinder to a turbocharged 2.5-liter that pushed the 280 horsepower (209 kW) self-imposed limit of the Japanese auto industry.

Generation 1 (1968–1972) T60/T70 series

US exported version for the same model year, often include the more powerful R series motors compared to other regions. While Japan and other markets often had 1.5L 2R (1500cc), 1.6L 7R/12R (1600cc) to 1.7L 6R (1700cc) models as well. Engines were shared with the Corona, using the 2R, and the 12R engine. Transmissions offered were an automatic transmission with 3 speeds for export and 2 speeds in Japan, or a choice of either a 4-speed or 3-speed manual transmission.The Corona Mark II, first offered for sale in Japan September 1968 at Toyopet Storedealerships, was intended as an intermediate model between the large luxury sedan the Crown, sold at Toyota Store dealerships, and the smaller Corona, also available at Toyopet Store . It was a slightly larger vehicle than a Corona with a higher level of equipment offered at the time, sharing some of the same features of the larger Crown, but taking the top position at Toyopet Store locations. The four-door sedan was designated as the T60 and the 2-door coupé the T70. In 1970 there were minor cosmetic changes in the front grille. The 1600cc 7R series engine was replaced by the 1700cc 6R series engine. A year later the 1500cc 2R models were replace by the 1600cc 12R engines. Its competitor was primarily the Nissan Laurel in Japan, released earlier that year in April.

RT62 sedans and RT72 coupé features the 1.8L 8R (1900cc) 4-cylinder engine, unique to the Mark II. The RT63 sedan, RT73 coupé, RT78/RT79 station wagons feature 2L 18R (2000cc) 4-cylinder engine, also unique to the Mark II. The suspension setup used double wishbone with coil springs at the front and leaf springs at the back with a front-engine rear-drive powertrain format.

The Corona Mark II was longer, at 4,295 mm (169.1 in) over the Corona's length of 162.4 in (4,125 mm) for the sedan, and the coupe, with a width of 1,610 mm (63 in) in comparison to 61 in (1,549 mm) for the sedan and coupe. The height of the Mark II is lower at1,405 mm (55.3 in) over 55.9 in (1,420 mm) for the sedan, but higher at 54.1 in (1,374 mm) for the coupe.

For North America, the Mark II was available with bucket seats for the front passengers, a center console with a floor-mounted manual transmission, electric rear window defroster, and a full size spare tire installed externally and underneath the cargo area on the wagon with rear seats that folded down to a fully carpeted rear cargo area. The Mark II wagon was the largest wagon Toyota offered in North America, next to the Corona and Corolla wagons; the Crown wagon was not sold in North America.

Generation 2 (1972–1976) X10/X20 series

The originally available engine choices include:The second generation Corona Mark II was based on a new X series platform abandoning the compact Corona T series chassis. X20's are referring to the 2-door sedans, while the X10's are the sedans and wagons. The inline six-cylinder "M" series engine was borrowed from the S60 series Crown, in order to compete better with the Nissan Bluebird / Datsun 610 in North America, and the Nissan Laurel in Japan. The styling used on the second generation was dramatically different from the first.

  • I4 1,700 cc 6R
  • I4 2,000 cc 18R
  • I4 2,000 cc 18R-G DOHC
  • I6 2,000 cc M
  • I6 2,300 cc 2M
  • I6 2,600 cc 4M

In 1973, there were minor changes and updates. The basic trim package wagon was offered with a five-speed manual transmission. Electronic fuel injection was introduced on the two-liter four-cylinder (18R) engine to increase power and lower fuel emissions. The four-cylinder 1,700 cc 6R engine was replaced by the 1,800 cc 16R.

In America

The Crown line of cars was no longer marketed in North America due to poor sales. This left a gap in Toyota's North American line up, offering only smaller compact cars. The second generation Corona Mark II fortunately increased in size. The Corona Mark II would be one of the few sensible options for families transitioning from larger American Detroit cars in the midst of the oil crisis. In 1974 it was marketed in the US as a fully loaded car with few added options. Standard features included a six-cylinder SOHC engine, four-speed manual transmission, front disc brakes, heater defroster, and bucket seats. Some available options were 8-track audio, power steering, air conditioning, and a three-speed automatic transmission.

Generation 3 (1976–1980) X30/X40 series

In 1998, Toyota released a car called Progrès. The Progrès front end looks sort of like an updated version of the X30/X40 series sedan. For instance, both of them feature a combination of round and squared lighting. The grille and bonnet also has similar shapes, size, and lines.The third generation was introduced with a more upscale, European type design. The lines are a combination of the previous generations American styling with a British looking front end. In 1978, this model generation was the last cars that feature the Toyopet name. The Grande trim was added to models with six-cylinder engines. This generation continued to offer Japanese buyers an alternative to the Nissan Laurelsedan, and the new Nissan Bluebird based Nissan Maxima in North America, with the new Chaser as an alternative to the Nissan Skyline in Japan. The Mark II was split into two other sedans so that they could sell different versions of the Mark II at multiple dealerships Toyota had established in the 1980s.

Chaser

The Toyota Chaser was released in 1977 as a competitor to the Nissan Skyline sedan. The Chaser was originally just a rebadged Mark II, although later generations received more differentiated styling. The idea of the Chaser was to offer a sportier version of the Mark II, often with more powerful engines and different suspension setups. At a glance they are virtually identical, with slightly differing equipment.

Cressida

For more information, see Toyota Cressida.The Corona Mark II was renamed the Toyota Cressida for export markets. It was Toyota's largest sedan and wagon range offered in both North America and Australia. In other markets, the larger Crown remained available.

Generation 4 (1980–1984) X60 series

The fourth generation Corona Mark II was launched in 1980. It was still badged as the Corona Mark II but many of the advertisement at the time simply refer to it as the Mark II. Power by either the 1G-EU, Turbo charged M-TEU, 5M-EU and fuel-injected version of the 18R-G was available in the GT. A diesel version was also available. In 1982 the twin-cam 1G-GEU engine was added. In 1983 the automatic transmission was changed to an electronic controlled four-speed. The two-door coupé version was not replaced as the fourth generation was only available with four doors, either as a sedan, hardtop, or station wagon (mainly marketed as a commercial vehicle in Japan).

Cresta

This Mark II generation was considered successful spawning commercial, taxi and drivers training vehicles. This made the Mark II familiar to everyone in Japan, as just about everyone who was born in a certain era had their initial experience learning to drive or riding in the taxis based on them. The Mark II was a fairly common favorite alongside the slightly smaller Corona as a taxi.

The Toyota Cresta was launched in 1980. Based on the same chassis as the Mark II, they are very similar. The goal of the Cresta was Toyota's first intermediate 4-door hardtop luxury sedan to compete with the Nissan Laurel hardtop, pitting the Mark II against the Nissan Laurel sedan. Often available with two-tone paint and more interior convenience options. The Cresta ended up being similar to the export market Cressida, with the Cresta remaining a four-door hardtop.

Generation 5 (1984–1988) X70 series

There are two different variation of the Mark II; the Hardtop and the Standard. Visually they are different on the exterior while the interior remains untouched.The 1984 model dropped the Corona name in Japan and simply called it the Mark II. This generation Mark II had a lot of rivals including the Nissan Leopard, as well as the traditional competitor Nissan Laurel sedan. The Mark II continued to remain very viable for fleet sales, government agencies and taxi services.

Exterior changes on the Hardtop version includes a slanted nose which requires a new grille, a thinner headlamp assembly that match the slanted nose, frameless door windows, thinner tail lamp, front fenders and bumper. Body panel is stamped different from the standard version.

The Standard version is exactly like the MX-73 Toyota Cressida. It does not have the aggressive slanted front end, conservative body panels and framed windows.

Station wagon/Van/Estate (1984–1997)

The X70 station wagon was produced from 1984 to 1997. That's 13 years with only a few minor revisions over the years. In most markets, sales of this wagon was stopped when the next model of the sedan was introduced but they continued to be sold in Japan for use as delivery vehicles. It was finally superseded by the front-wheel-drive Mark II Qualis that was based on the Camry Gracia.

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