FANDOM


DSC00227

Volvo 240 Custom

The Volvo 200 series is a range of large family cars (mid-size cars in the USA), produced by Volvo from 1974 to 1993, with more than 2.8 million units sold worldwide. The 200 series was essentially an updated version of the 140; both were designed by Jan Wilsgaard. It shared the same body, but included a number of mechanical improvements. The 200 replaced the 140 and the 140-based 164, and overlapped production of the Volvo 700 series introduced in 1982. As the 240 remained popular, only the 260 was displaced by the 700 series — which Volvo marketed alongside the 240 for another decade. The 700 series was replaced a year before the 240 was discontinued. At the time, Volvo guaranteed their cars would last for 19.3 years.

The Volvo 240 was Volvo's best-selling car from 1975 until 1982. During those years in European markets, its companion was initially the smaller Volvo 66, then its replacement, the 300 series.

Production ended on May 14, 1993.

History

The Volvo 240 and 260 Series was introduced in the autumn of 1974, and was initially available as six variations of the 240 Series (242L, 242DL, 244DL, 244GL, 245L and 245DL) and two variations of the 260 Series (264DL and 264GL). The 240 Series was available in Coupe, Sedan or Station Wagon, however the 260 Series was only available in Sedan or Station Wagon. The 200 looked much like the earlier 140 and 164 Series, for they shared the same body shell and were largely the same from the cowl rearward. However, the 200 incorporated many of the features and design elements tried in the Volvo VESC ESV in 1972, which was a prototype experiment in car safety. The overall safety of the driver and passengers in the event of a crash was greatly improved with very large front and rear end crumple zones. The 200 Series had MacPherson strut type front suspension, which increased room around the engine bay, while the rear suspension was a modified version of that fitted to the 140 Series. The steering was greatly improved with the installation of rack-and-pinion steering, with power steering fitted as standard to the 244GL, 264DL and 264GL, and there were some modifications made to the braking system (in particular the master cylinder.

The main changes were made to the engine. The 1974 240 series retained the B20A 4-cylinder engine from the 140 Series in certain markets, with the new B21A engine available as an option on the 240 DL models. The new B21 engine was a 2127cc, 4-cylinder unit, which had a cast-iron block, a five-bearing crankshaft, and a belt-driven overhead camshaft. This engine produced 97 bhp (72 kW) for the B21A carburettor 242DL, 244DL and 245DL, and 123 bhp (92 kW) for the B21E fuel-injected 244GL. All 240s were fuel-injected in the US market; the carbureted B20 and B21 engines were not available due to emissions regulations.The 264 models had a completely new V6 B27E engine called the Douvrin engine. This engine was developed jointly by Peugeot, Renault and Volvo, and is therefore generally known as the "PRV engine". The B27E engine had a displacement of 2664 cc, an aluminium alloy block, and wet cylinder liners. This engine produced 140 bhp (100 kW) for both the 264DL and 264GL. All models were available with a choice of 4-speed manual or 3-speed automatic transmission. Overdrive was also optional on the manual 244GL, while a 5-speed manual gearbox was optional on the 264GL and 265GL.

The front end of the car was also completely restyled – that being the most obvious change of which made the 200 Series distinguishable from the earlier 140 and 160 Series. Other than all the changes mentioned above, the 200 Series was almost identical to the 140 and 160 Series from the bulkhead to the very rear end. The dashboard was derived from the safety fascia introduced for the 1972 140-series - but was changed again in 1980 with the instrument pod made considerably larger and the radio repositioned near the top of the dashboard.In the autumn of 1975 (for the 1976 model year in America), the 265 DL estate became available alongside the existing range, and this was the first production Volvo estate to be powered by a six-cylinder engine. Around this time, the existing 200 Series underwent some technical changes. The B20A engine was dropped from certain markets, though it remained available in other markets until 1977. Its replacement, the B21A engine, received a new camshaft which increased the output from 93 to 100 bhp (75 kW). The two-door 262 DL and GL sedans, the 264DL saloon (sedan) and the new 265DL estate (station wagon) were offered outside North America with the new V6 B27A engine. This engine was almost identical to the fuel-injected V6 B27E engine except it had an SU carburettor instead of fuel injection, and therefore it produced a lower output of 125 bhp (93 kW). The choice of gearbox was also greatly improved, with overdrive now available as an option in all manual models except the base-model 242L and 245L. As before, the 3-speed automatic was optional in every model.

The first models to reach the US market were 1975 models equipped with the old pushrod B20F engine, with the new OHC B21F motor making its way to America for the 1976 model year. A fuel-injected variant of the V6, the B27F, was introduced to the US in the 1976 260 series. The US and Canadian 200-series ranges were not identical; the B21A carbureted engine was never available in the US, but was the base engine in Canada from 1977 through 1984. 1975-76 Canadian models were identical to their US counterparts. Beginning in 1985, Canadian models received the US model engines, usually in 49-state form, except for the Turbo, which only had California emission controls.

Incremental improvements were made almost every year of the production run. One of the major improvements was the introduction of the oxygen sensor in 1976 (1977 models), which Volvo called Lambda Sond and developed in conjunction with Bosch. It added a feedback loop to the K-Jetronic fuel injection system already in use, which allowed fine-tuning of the air and fuel mixture and therefore produced superior emissions, drivability and fuel economy.

About one-third of all 240s sold were station wagons, which featured very large cargo space of 41 cubic feet (1.2 m3). They could be outfitted with a rear-facing foldable jumpseat in the passenger area, making the wagon a seven-passenger vehicle. The jumpseat came with three-point seat belts, and wagons were designed to have a reinforced floor section, protecting the occupants of the jumpseat in the event of a rear-end collision. Both the 200 series and the 700 series became a status symbol worldwide.

The last 200 produced was a blue station wagon built to the Italian specification and named the "Polar Italia", currently displayed at the Volvo World Museum.

Engines

The 200 series was offered with three families of engines. Most 240s were equipped with Volvo's own red block, 2.1-litre four-cylinder engines. Both overhead valve and overhead cam versions of the red block engines were installed in 240s. V6 engines were also available. Known as the PRV family, they were developed in a three-way partnership among Volvo, Peugeot and Renault, 240 diesel models are powered by diesel engines purchased from Volkswagen.

6-cylinder PRV

The B27 was a 90-degree V6 produced by Peugeot, Renault, and Volvo in collaboration and is often referred to as the "PRV." This engine was unusual at the time, being composed of many small parts in a modular design (as opposed to a monolithic engine block and head). Volvo increased the displacement to 2.8 litres in 1980 with the introduction of the B28E and B28F engines, which were prone to top-end oiling troubles and premature camshaft wear. Nevertheless, Volvo continued to use the B28 V6 in their new 760 model. DeLorean Motor Company went on to use the PRV B28F in their DMC-12 vehicle, and a 3-litre version was used in the 1987–1992 Eagle Premier,Dodge Monaco, and Renault 21. The updated B280 engine used in the final years of the 760 and 780 models did not suffer from the same premature camshaft wear as the earlier PRV engines.

VW Diesels

In 1979 Volvo introduced a diesel engine that was purchased from Volkswagen, similar in design to that used in diesel Volkswagen and Audi vehicles at the time. These engines were all liquid-cooled pre-combustion chamber diesel engines with non-sleeved iron blocks and aluminum heads. A Bosch mechanical injection system was used that required constant electrical input so that the fuel supply could be cut off when the ignition key was removed. A 2.4-litre inline 6 (the D24) and a 2.0-litre inline 5 (the D20) were available, producing 82 bhp (61 kW) and 69 bhp (51 kW) respectively. The lesser D20 engine was only sold in select markets where it was favored by the tax structures, most cars went to Finland but it was also marketed in Italy between 1979 and 1981. A turbocharged diesel was never sold in the 200 series Volvo.

Badges

Nomenclature

The 200-series cars were identified initially by badges on their trunk lid or rear hatch in a manner similar to the system used for previous models.


  • 1974–1982: three digits (in the format 2XY, where X usually represented the number of cylinders and Y represented the doors: 2 for coupés, 4 for sedans, 5 for station wagons) followed by trim level letters. For example; 244 and 245 were 4-cylinder sedans and wagons respectively and 264 and 265 (V6) cylinder sedans and wagons respectively.
  • 1983–1993: 240 (or 260 until 1985) followed by trim level letters (third digit no longer reflected body style, although it is reflected in the engine compartment label, as well as on the label in the trunk on sedans or under the main cargo compartment storage lid on wagons.) Special models (e.g. Polar and Torslanda) sometimes omitted the "240".For the American market:
    • 1975–1979: trim level letters preceded by three digits (in the format 2XY, where X usually represented the number of cylinders and Y represented the doors: 2 for coupés, 4 for sedans, 5 for station wagons)
    • 1980–1985: trim level letters. Note: A small number of 4-cylinder 260s were produced, namely the 1980–1981 GL sedan, which could either be a 240 or a 260. Additionally, diesel 240s have six-cylinder engines.
    • 1986–1993: 240 followed by trim level letters (third digit no longer reflected body style), although it is reflected in the engine compartment label, as well as on the label in the trunk on sedans or under the main cargo compartment storage lid on wagons.

Trim levels

Throughout the 200-series' production, different levels of luxury were available for purchase. The specific trim level designations ranged from L, being the least expensive, to GLT, indicating a sporty premium offering. The actual equipment and availability of a particular trim level varied depending on the market. The letters normally appeared on the trunk lid or rear hatch of the car (except for during MY1983) and had originally represented the following, although by the 1980s the letter codes had officially lost any underlying meaning:

    • L (Luxe)
    • DL (de Luxe)
    • GL (Grand Luxe)
    • GLE (Grand Luxe Executive)
    • GLT (Grand Luxe Touring)
    • GT
    • Turbo (Replaced the GT offering in 1981, with GLT trim)

(For example, a 1979 GT 200-series Volvo would be badged a 242 GT, meaning it is a 240-series car with two doors, and GT trim.)

The '4' and '6' codes soon lost their original meaning as signifying the number of cylinders with the introduction of B17-engined four-cylinder Volvo 260s for export to Greece and Israel in the late 70s. There was also a six-cylinder 240 GLT in some markets, as well as both six- and five-cylinder diesels labelled '240'. The second digit now only denoted how luxurious the car was. By June 1982, with the introduction of the model year 1983 Volvos, the third digit too lost its meaning and the 242/244/245 became simply the 240.

Special trim levels

Several trim levels were special offerings only available during certain years or for unique body styles:

    • Polar (1992)
    • GTX
    • Super Polar
    • SE: Special Equipment (1991-93 late runout edition, typically with GL or GLT interior trim but without the performance/ handling modifications. )
    • Limited (1992; very similar to Classic, but not numbered edition with brass plaque instead of the numbering)
    • Classic (1993; numbered version of the last 1600 200-series Volvos produced for North American market)
    • Torslanda (1992-93 Europe Only special edition, designed for harsh winters and long service. Interiors can be either the 'luxury' velour of the GL/GLT or durable tweed. These cars had manual windows, locks, and no AC but still had seat heaters.)

Engine type

Sometimes, the engine type of a car was also designated by badging. In some instances, these badges were omitted, replaced trim level badges, or even used in combination with them:


    • Turbo (was its own trim level - 1981-82 models also had GLT Turbo models)
    • Diesel (like the Turbo, was its own trim level - had most GL features, but some omissions)
    • Injection (Indicating fuel injection (k-jetronic) in certain markets)
    • Katalysator (Indicating a catalytic converter in Scandinavia and the German market)

200 Series specifications

    • Produced 1974–93
    • Production volume: 2,862,053
    • Body style: 4-door sedan (1974–1993), 2-door sedan (1975–1984), 5-door station wagon (1975–1993), 3-door ambulance, 3-door hearse
    • Engines: See the engine section for more detail. Engine configurations included:
      • B20 4-cylinder inline OHV
      • B17, B19, B21, B23, B200, B230 4-cylinder inline OHC
      • B21ET, B21FT 4-cylinder inline OHC turbo sometimes intercooled
      • B27, B28 V6 OHC
      • D20 5-cylinder inline OHC diesel
      • D24 6-cylinder inline OHC diesel
    • Transmissions: Volvo offered various transmissions depending on the year/model/market/engine combinations including the:
      • M40 (4-speed manual, 1975 only)
      • M41 (4-speed manual with electrical overdrive, 1975 only, coupe and sedan only)
      • M45 (4-speed manual)
      • M46 (4-speed manual with electrical overdrive)
      • M47 (5-speed manual)
      • BW35, BW55 or AW55 (3-speed automatic)
      • AW70 or AW71 (4-speed automatic with 3 direct + OD)
    • Brakes: Hydraulic, disc brakes on all four wheels.
      • Front: four opposed piston calipers with either solid or (later) vented rotors
      • Rear: twin piston calipers utilizing solid rotors and integral parking brake drums.
      • Triangulated braking circuits on non-ABS cars with both front calipers and one rear caliper per circuit. ABS cars used normal diagonal split braking system.
    • Standard safety features
      • Driver airbag (from 1990 - US only; optional 1990-91 Cdn models, standard 1992-93 Cdn)
      • Anti-lock braking system (ABS) (from 1991)
    • Dimensions:
      • Wheelbase: 264 cm/104 in
      • Length (Europe):
        • 1975–1980: 490 cm/193 in
        • 1981–1993: 479 cm/189 in
      • Length (US/Canada):
        • 1975–1982: 490 cm/192.5 in - 1975–1985 Cdn 240)
        • 1983–1985 US: 479 cm/189.4 in
        • 1986–1993 US/Cdn: 4?? cm/190.? in
    • Weight: 2,840 lb (1,290 kg) (1989 US spec 240, fully fueled, no driver)

Special editions

    • 244 DLS (1977–78): Export model to the former German Democratic Republic with 264 grille. Total amount exported approx. 1000.
      • 264 Top Executive (1975–81): A limousine version of the 264; many now reside in Germany as they were exported to the former German Democratic Republic for use by the government (which would neither use the small Trabant or Wartburg models nor import "Western" autos like BMWs and Mercedes-Benzes). As a result, the population called Wandlitz, the preferred home town of politicians, Volvograd.
      • 262C/Coupé by Bertone (1978–81): This had custom body work and interior from Bertone. The exterior coachbuilding of these two-door saloons consisted of a chopped roof(2.25in shorter than 242) and a more raked windscreen. The 1980 & 1981 models were badged Coupé instead of 262C. These cars were further characterised by additional Bertone badges on the front wings. Mostly built in left hand drive form, right hand drive vehicles are very rare.
      • 245 T (Transfer) (1977-early 1980s): An un-proportionately styled extended wheelbase station wagon designed to have additional rows of seats for use as taxi or rural school bus
      • 242 GTX (Early 1980s) : A special model released in Sweden. Featured U.S quad sealed beam headlamps, turbo rims, and other minor cosmetic trim (mainly USA spec). Powered by a special 16-valve, dual carburetor engine, it developed 170 kW (231 PS; 228 hp) at 7500 rpm and was coupled with an M46 Manual transmission.
      • 242 GT (1978–80): Sport model with race suspension and a high-compression engine. All US models were Mystic Silver Metallic with black and red racing stripes going from the hood to the side to the trunk. Special black corduroy interior with red stripes. Canadian models were available in black with red pinstripes along the side of the car, in addition to the US model silver.
      • GLT-Turbo (1981–85): Replaced the GT as the sporty model, equipped with a turbocharged engine, with an intercooler from mid-84. 2-door model available 1981–1984; sedans available late 1981-early 1985 and wagons available 1982-early 1985. Came with new black trimming as opposed to the popular chrome trimming found on the GLs (Grill, door trim, door handles, tail light sills & lens dividers). All came factory stock with 15" Virgo alloy wheels.
      • GLT (1981–82): Standing for "Grand Luxe Touring," these models shared the uprated suspension, blacked-out exterior trim, and 15" Virgo alloy wheels of the GLT-Turbo model, but with a naturally aspirated powertrain.
      • 244/240 GLE (1981–85) Australian market: Due to the problems with fitting a turbocharger to a RHD vehicle the Turbo model was rebadged a GLE and retained all the backed-out trim and high-end interior fittings of the turbo models but were equipped with the B23E then B230E engines most frequently mated to the BW55 until 1983 then trh AW71 for 1984–1985.
      • 242 Group A Homologated Turbo (1983): 500 models built to satisfy production requirements to qualify for Group-A sedan class racing in Europe; all were sold to Volvo of North America and approximately 30 were returned to Europe for racing; all of these cars had flat hoods not otherwise seen on North American 240s, as well as numerous and substantial performance and suspension upgrades ranging from larger radiators and intercoolers to water injection and large rear spoilers
      • 240 SE (1991): Special alloy wheels, all-black grille and trim. Roof rails on wagon model.
      • 240 (Super) Polar (1991–1992): European markets only; commonly found in Italy.
      • 240 Classic (1992–93): European markets from the 1992 model year. For the North American market, only 1,600 were produced in April and May 1993, half wagons and half sedans. European Classics have fully equipped interior with wood dash trim and "Classic" badges on hatch/decklid. In addition to the European equipment, the 1,600 North American Classics have body-matched painted grilles and side mirrors, special 14" alloy wheels, production-number plaque in dash, and special paint colors — ruby red or metallic dark teal green.
      • 240 GL (1992): North American market. Slightly different from the early 1975–1989 GL model, more like the 1993 Classic and the 1991 SE model. Only available in 244 sedan bodystyle.
      • 240 Torslanda (1993): Very few of these special models were made. They were made primarily for use in Sweden, as they were specially equipped for surviving snow and ice in freezing winters. These cars can be identified by Torslanda badging, tinted windows, plastic exterior trim (as opposed to chrome, which will rust in snowy conditions), multi-spoke 15" alloy wheels, and full-length body striping above the rocker panels. The interior featured only the bare minimum of extras with no electric mirrors, windows, cruise control, air conditioning nor leather upholstery. Because the freezing temperatures could cause luxurious accessories to break down more often than usual, the only features were heated front seats, power steering and the standard heating systems. The Torslanda was sold outside of Sweden as a limited run special edition to mark the rundown of 240 production.

Gallery

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.